STEM Like Me recognizes diverse scholars in STEM fields that look like students in today’s classrooms. Every week we will be adding a new STEM professional to our list to highlight the great people practicing science and engineering. If you have an idea of someone you think the STEM Center could feature, please contact us.
Anthropologists Like Me
Jane Goodall – Jane Goodall is a Primatologist and Anthropologist studying Chimpanzee’s for over 55 years. Through her work in Africa, where she lived with Chimpanzee’s, Jane helped change our understanding about our closest relation in the animal kingdom. She discovered that chimpanzees make and use tools, hunt and eat meat, wage war, have strong bonds, and show acts of compassion. These discoveries have shown how similar chimpanzees are to humans. Jane Goodall is also an environmental conversation activist, a member of the United Nations, and an honorary member of the World Future Council.
Biologists Like Me
John James Audubon – World Migratory Bird day was Saturday, May 11. To celebrate the research of great ornithologists (scientists who study birds), the STEM Center is featuring John James Audubon as this week’s STEM Like Me scientist. Audubon was an American ornithologist, naturalist, and painter who was the first to document 25 species of birds. One of his greatest works is the color-plate book The Birds of America, which is considered to be one of the finest ornithological works ever completed. In his early life, Audubon was born in Haiti but soon thereafter moved to France where he lived until his father sent him to the United States to escape a war. Once in the United States, Audubon wanted to study and illustrate American birds in a more realistic manner than many other artists. He set ambitious goals of finding and painting all the birds of North America and to surpass the earlier ornithological work of Alexander Wilson.
He also began the first known bird-banding on the continent. He tied pieces of yarn to the legs of eastern phoebes, discovering that individuals of this species returned to the same nesting spots year after year. His study of birds included drawings and paintings, but he also systematically recorded the behaviors of the birds he illustrated. When working on The Birds of America, Audubon attempted to paint one page each day. He also re-painted earlier works as he learned new techniques in his painting. Audubon sought to publish his work in the United States, but North American publishers rebuffed his work. This led him to travel to England with over 300 drawings. His work of American wildlife was well-received in England, and he raised enough money to publish The Birds of America. This work consists of 435 hand-colored, life size prints of 497 bird species that are made from engraved copper plates. After publication of The Birds of America, Audubon came back to America and wrote a follow-up manuscript, Ornithological Biographies. This book is a collection of life histories for each species in The Birds of America.
Audubon inspired nearly all later ornithological works with his artistry and high standards. His book, The Birds of America, is still considered one of the greatest examples of naturalist book art. Today, The Birds of America is one of the world’s most expensive books, and one edition recently sold at auction for over $11 million. In Audubon, Pennsylvania, there is a museum open to the public that presents all of his major works. Henderson, Kentucky hosts the Audubon Museum at John James Audubon State Park where many of his original watercolors, engravings, and personal memorabilia are held. Audubon also had the National Audubon Society named in his honor, with the mission “to conserve and restore natural ecosystems, focusing on birds”. He has many other parks, towns, and more named in his honor.
Rachel Carson – In recognition of World Environmental Day and World Oceans Day this week, on June 5 and June 8 respectively, we are honoring Rachel Carson as this week’s STEM Like Me. Rachel Carson attended the Pennsylvania College for Women from 1925-1929, where she originally studied English before switching her major to biology. She then spent the summer at the Marine Biological Laboratory before attending John Hopkins in 1929 to study zoology and genetics. After receiving her master’s degree in zoology, Carson had to leave school instead of continuing for her doctorate to help support her family during the Great Depression. She began to work temporarily for the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries, where she wrote for a series of educational broadcasts, Romance Under the Waters. In 1936, Carson became the second woman to become a full-time employee of the Bureau of Fisheries as a junior aquatic biologist. Carson’s work led to her writing for many newspapers and journals, and she wrote many books throughout her career as well. The publication of The Sea Around Us, a life history of the ocean, earned Carson two honorary doctorates. After the publication of this book, she left the Bureau of Fisheries, now known as the Bureau of Fish and Wildlife Service, to pursue research and writing.
One of her other great accomplishments include the publication of Silent Spring, a warning about dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and other pesticides. Her book heavily influenced governments to ban or restrict the use of DDT and similar pesticides and chemicals. The publication of this work is also helped launch the environmental movement. Carson passed away in 1964 after fighting breast cancer. Posthumously, Carson was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom and inducted into the National Women’s Hall of Fame.
Ernest Everett Just – Ernest Everett Just was an African-American biologist who studied marine biology, cytology, and parthenogenesis. Just advocated that we should study the whole cell under normal conditions, rather than breaking apart the cell in a laboratory. He spent the majority of his career at Howard University; however, he always sought out positions at other school’s so he could focus more on his research. He had a difficult time finding these positions, so he often went to Europe to conduct research, where he was better accepted. In 1940, Just was working in France and did not leave at the government’s request. After Germany invaded France, Just was help as a prisoner-of-war while he was ill. He was rescued and diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, but died shortly after his diagnosis.
Danielle N. Lee is a behavioral biologist at SIUE. She obtained her Ph.D. in Biology from the University of Missouri – St. Louis in 2010 and her research focuses on how ecology and evolutionary components contribute to the behavior of animals. One of Lee’s research projects involves exploring the African giant pouch rat’s behaviors. Through this research, Lee hopes to discover if there are differences between the behaviors the giant pouch rat exhibits as well as if there is a genetic component to these differences in behavior. She is currently expanding this research to examine small rodents in the St. Louis Metropolitan area and their behavioral differences.
Lee is also passionate about STEM outreach and sharing science to general audiences, especially under-served groups. She typically does this with outdoor programming and social media. From 2011-2016, Lee wrote The Urban Scientist blog; where she wrote about her experiences as a researcher, issues of diversity in STEM, and urban ecology. Lee now primarily uses Twitter to share her science and outreach, and Huffington Post recognized her as a top scientist to follow. Lee has been awarded many times for her efforts to encourage minorities to join STEM; including being named a TED Fellow in 2015, a National Geographic Emerging Explorer for 2017, and a Plenary Speaker at the annual British Ecological Society meeting in 2018. On April 19, 2019, Lee gave a Ted Talk on how hip-hop helps us understand science.
Daniel Pauly – Daniel Pauly is a French-born marine biologist known for his work in studying human impacts on global fisheries. Pauly grew up in Switzerland as a live-in servant until he ran away when he was 16 to put himself through school. His work at his high school and working with disabled people for a local institution led to receive a scholarship to the University of Kiel in Germany. While Pauly was at the University of Kiel he decided to study fisheries biology and stayed at Kiel University to complete his bachelor, master’s, and Ph.D. degrees. Pauly completed his degrees under the advisement of Gotthilf Hempel and studied the ecology of a small West African lagoon to establish relationships between the surface area of gills and the growth of fishes and aquatic (gill-breathing) invertebrates.
Pauly wanted to work in the tropics while devoting his life to applying his research so he could fishers, so he moved to the Philippines to work at the International Center for Living and Aquatic Resources Management. He stayed here for 15 years when he worked in the tropics and developed new techniques for estimating fish populations. Pauly helped create FishBase, which is an online encyclopedia comprised of information and data for over 30,000 different fish species.
Another prominent area of Pauly’s work has been his examination of the effects of overfishing. In 1995, he developed the concept of shifting baselines and authored the seminal paper, “Fishing Down Marine Food Webs” in 1998. In 2003 he was labeled as an “iconoclaust” by the New York Times and earned a place in the “Scientific American 50”. Throughout his career he’s won various other prizes, medals, and awards for his work. To date, Pauly has written multiple books and over 500 scientific papers.
Botanists Like Me
George Washington Carver – George Washington Carver was an agricultural scientist and inventor who actively promoted the use of crop rotation. Carver was born a slave and overcame many life challenges to pursue a career in science. He left his family to continue his education at various schools and applied to several colleges before being accepted. Once he arrived at that college, he was denied entrance due to his race. This led him to move and homestead a claim in Kansas, where he maintained a small plot of plants and flower. He also grew and harvested rice, corn, and garden produce, as well as fruit trees and forest trees. Finally, he was accepted into Simpson College in Indianola, Iowa, where he studied art and piano but was encouraged to study botany at Iowa State Agricultural College.
After obtaining a degree from Iowa State and working there, Carver was hired to work at the Tuskegee Institute. While there, Carver became passionate about improving the quality of life for poor farmers, so he worked to develop techniques to improve soil quality and encouraged poor farmers to grow alternative crops besides cotton. By growing foods like peanuts and sweet potatoes, these farmers could grow more foods for themselves. Carver even created bulletins for farmers, one of which contained 105 food recipes for using peanuts. He also spent time developing products made from peanuts. Besides peanuts, Carver also researched new uses for sweet potatoes, soybeans, pecans, and more. With his innovative agricultural research, an invitation to speak at the 1920 Peanut Growers Association national conference, and his testimony in a 1921 federal case on the tariff of peanuts, he became known as a scholar, expert in the field of agriculture, and environmentalist.
Helia Bravo Hollis – Helia Bravo Hollis was a Mexican botanist who focused her research on the cultivation of flowers and the taxonomy of Cactaceae: the plant family of cacti. Throughout her distinguished career, Bravo helped co-found the Mexican Cactus Society, and the Botanical Gardens at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) in 1959. She also has a botanical garden named after her that houses many endangered cacti. While focusing on the taxonomy of cacti, she organized a collection of live plants to observe their development and evaluate morphological characteristics. Through her work with cacti and succulents, Bravo has over 160 publications, 60 taxonomy descriptions, and 50 reclassifications. Bravo went to UNAM for her bachelor’s and master’s degrees, and received an honorary doctorate later in life.
Chemists Like Me
Marie Curie – Marie Curie was a famous physicist and chemist who, with the help of her husband Pierre, discovered radioactivity. In 1903, Marie Curie, Pierre Curie, and Henri Becquerel won the Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery of spontaneous radioactivity. Marie Curie was the first woman to ever win a Nobel Prize, and the only woman to ever win two, and the only person to win a Nobel Prize in two different sciences. Her second was a Nobel Prize in Chemistry, for the discovery of polonium and radium.
Some of her other important achievements include the founding of the Curies Institutes in Paris and in Warsaw, discovering the use of radium gas as a cancer treatment, and the creation of X-Ray trucks during World War I.
Marie Maynard Daly – Marie Maynard Daly was the first Black American woman in the United States to earn a Ph.D. in Chemistry. She was inspired to pursue chemistry by her father, and attended Queens College, New York University, and Columbia University, to obtain her degrees. In memory of her father, she established a scholarship for African American chemistry and physics majors at Queens college after she retired from teaching.
After Daly obtained her Ph.D. from Columbia University, she worked as a physical science instructor and conducted research for a few years before becoming a professor of biochemistry and of medicine at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. She stayed at this school until her retirement in 1986. Through her work, Dr. Daly studied histones, proteins, the relationship between cholesterol and hypertension, and the uptake of creatine by muscle cells.
Rosalind Franklin – Thursday, April 25th, was DNA Day. We are celebrating DNA Day by featuring Rosalind Franklin as our STEM Like Me scientist of the week. Rosalind Franklin was an English chemist who helped the scientific community understand the molecular structure of DNA, RNA, viruses, and more. She worked at the British Coal Utilisation Research Association from 1942-1947, when she began her research on coal and earned a Ph.D. In 1947, she moved to Paris for her post-doctoral research, and became an accomplished X-ray crystallographer. Then in 1951, she became a research associate at King’s College London, working on X-ray diffraction studies. Through these studies, Franklin captured what would later be discovered as the first image of DNA, Photo 51: an image that led to the discovery of the double helix shape that makes up DNA.
Franklin’s colleague, Maurice Wilkins, would later show her picture to James Watson and Francis Crick, who were also researching the structure of DNA. This was done without Franklin’s permission, and Watson and his colleagues were able to deduce the structure of DNA through Franklin’s photo. They went on to publish a series of articles about the discovery, and only mentioned Franklin’s contributions in a footnote. She left King’s College in 1953 due to disagreements with Wilkins, and moved to Birkbeck College. She stayed here conducting pioneering research on the molecular structure of viruses until her death in 1958. Four years after her death, Watson, Crick, and Wilkins won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA. While there was not a rule against posthumous awards, the Nobel Committee does not generally make posthumous nominations so Rosalind Franklin did not receive an award. We still want to recognize her for her contributions to our understanding of DNA.
Walter Lincoln Hawkins – Walter Lincoln Hawkins was an African-American chemist and engineer who was a pioneer of polymer chemistry. Hawkins graduated with a bachelor’s degree in chemical engineering from Rensselar Polytechnic Institute before going on to Howard University for a master’s degree in chemistry. He continued his education at McGill University in Canada where he earned a doctoral degree in chemistry. After obtaining a PhD, he worked at Columbia University through a fellowship from the National Research Council. He then became the first African-American to join the technical staff of Bell Laboratories. While working at Bell Laboratories, Hawkins contributed to the development of a rubber substitute. He also worked on a new type of insulation for telephone cables, which was made of a lighter material that could hold up against temperature fluctuations, last up to 70 years, and was less expensive than led. Subsequently, telephones were installed in rural areas leading thousands of people to receive affordable telephone service.
He later became the assistant director of Bell Laboratories chemical research lab. Hawkins work focused on developing new products and new methods of recycling for various polymers. His work with plastics led to developments to help plastics last longer but also become recyclable. After his retirement from Bell Laboratories, Hawkins began teaching and becoming an advocate for college students to study science and engineering. In 1992, Hawkins passed away due to heart failure, but earlier that year he received the National Medal of Technology from President George H.W. Bush at the White House.
Rigoberto Hernandez – Rigoberto Hernandez is an American chemist. Born in Cuba, Hernandez moved around the world before settling in Florida when he was a child. His interest in science was sparked while in high school, when the University of Miami offered a research program. This interest then led Hernandez to attend Princeton University for an undergraduate degree in chemical engineering and mathematics. He continued his education at the University of California, Berkeley with a doctorate degree in chemistry.
Hernandez now works at Johns Hopkins where he studies chemical reactions, transition state theory, and non-equilibrium stochastic dynamics. He is also director of the Open Chemistry Collaborative in Diversity Equity (OXIDE) program, which if funded by the NSF, NIH, and U.S. Department of Energy. The aim of this program is to increase participation in the chemical sciences, especially for those people who have been traditionally underrepresented in the sciences. Other aims are to support research and awareness of issues of diversity in chemistry fields. Hernandez has won many awards for his work in diversity and research in the southeast. Some of these awards include the ACS Award for Encouraging Disadvantaged Students into Careers in the Chemical Sciences, the 2015 Diversity Award from the Council for Chemical Research, the 2017 Herty Metal, and the 2016 Transformational Research and Excellence in Education Award.
Kamala Sohonie – Kamala Sohonie was a pioneer of biochemistry in India, and the first Indian woman to receive a PhD in a scientific field. After obtaining a bachelor’s degree in Chemistry and Physics from Bombay University, Kamala applied to the Indian Institute of Science. She was the first woman accepted into the program; however, her acceptance was conditional and did not come without struggles. While here she obtained a MS degree, and was then invited to Cambridge University to work and study for her PhD. She then returned to India where she was appointed Professor and Head of the Department of Biochemistry at Lady Hardinge Medical College. After marrying her husband, she joined the Royal Institute of Science as a professor of biochemistry, and later became Director of the Institute. While Sohonie researched many different aspects of biochemistry throughout her career, her most notable work was in the effects of vitamins and the nutritional values of pulses, paddy, and foods consumed by some of the poorest sections of Indian. She received the Rashtrapati Award for her work with the palm extract ‘Neera’. Through her research in this subject she found that adding Neera to the diets of malnourished adolescents and pregnant women was significantly beneficial to their health and an inexpensive option.
Computer Scientists Like Me
Jeannette Wing – Jeannette Wing is a world-renowned computer scientist for her work on Linearizability, the Liskov Substitution Principle, and computational thinking. Through her work, we are able to better understand how computer systems run effectively. She also helped describe computational thinking in her 2006 paper, where she also helped define a movement towards making students more prepared to use computers as they solve problems and understand the world. This paper has been featured in many National Science Foundation proposals, including the STEM+C project at the STEM Center in which we are learning about integrating STEM and computational thinking into curriculum. Jeanette earned her degrees in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science from MIT, where she studied under Ronald Rivest, John Resier, and John Guttag. She went on to teach at the University of Southern California. Most her career was spent at Carnegie Mellon University as a professor and then as head of the Computer Science Department. In 2013, she left Carnegie Mellon to work as Corporate Vice President of Microsoft Research. She is now Avanessians Director of the Data Sciences Institute at Columbia University, where she is also a professor of computer science.
Engineers Like Me
Karletta Chief – Karletta Chief is of the Navajo people, and is a hydrologist who at a young age decided to pursue environmental engineering. After attending Stanford University for her bachelor’s and master’s degrees in civil and environmental engineering, Chief later returned to school. She obtained a doctorate from the University of Arizona in hydrology and water resources. She now works at the University of Arizona in the Department of Soil, Water, and Environmental Science as an Assistant Professor and Assistant Specialist. Chief’s work focuses on watershed hydrology, unsaturated flow in arid environments, and the effects of both natural and human changes on soil hydrology. She also continues to work with the Navajo Nation, and examines how climate change poses risks for indigenous people. Chief’s work includes bringing science to Native American communities by assessing information needs, using her hydrology expertise to share knowledge, and developing applied science projects in a culturally sensitive way. Throughout her career, she has won the Stanford University Distinguished Alumni Scholar Award, the 2015 Native American 40 under 40 Award, and the 2016 American Indian Science and Engineering Society (AISES) Professional of the Year Award.
Mildred Dresselhaus – Mildred Dresselhaus was a pioneering woman in electrical engineering, known for her research in graphite and semiconductors. Dresselhaus was raised in the Bronx and attended Hunter College to pursue her bachelors degree before continuing her graduate and post-graduate education at the University of Cambridge, Harvard University, the University of Chicago, and Cornell University. During her time at these various institutions, she served as a Fulbright Fellow, received a masters and PhD, and completed postdoctoral studies.
After completing her education, Dresselhaus worked at MIT’s Lincoln Lab and then moved to the campus of MIT, where she spent the remainder of her career as a professor of electrical engineering and physics. She was also the first female Institute Professor at MIT. Dresselhaus studied a wide range of subjects, but some of her most notable research includes her work with carbon, which led to her being known the “queen of carbon science”. Over the years her research focused on the electronic structure of semi-metals, various aspects of granite, and nanomaterials.
Throughout her life, Dresselhaus was awarded many honors and held many prestigious positions. She was the director at the Office of Science at the U.S. Department of Energy, she was the chair of the American Institute of Physics, president of the American Physical Society, and the first female president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science to name a few. In 2014 she received the Presidential Medal of Freedom and was inducted into the U.S. National Inventors Hall of Fame. She was the first female recipient of the IEEE Medal of Honor and received many honorary doctorates and other awards throughout her life. Dresselhaus passed away in 2017, but continues to serve as an outstanding female role model in science and engineering.
Mae C. Jemison – Dr. Mae C. Jemison was the first Black American women in space! She was admitted into the NASA’s astronaut training program on June 4, 1987, & flew into space on September 12, 1992. Before becoming an astronaut, Dr. Jemison obtained a B.S. degree in Chemical Engineering and a B.A. in African and Afro-American studies from Stanford and then an M.D. from Cornell Medical College. She then went to work as a general physician and in the Peace Corps before applying to become an astronaut. After her time in space, Jemison founded her own company, the Jemison Group, that works on researching and developing technology to help with daily life. Throughout her life, Dr. Jemison has been awarded nine honorary doctorates, as well as many awards, in recognition of her many accomplishments.
Dr. Jemison was a guest speaker at SIUE in 2017 and spoke on “Exploring the Frontiers of Science and Human Potential”.
Mary G. Ross was the first female Native American engineer. She was raised in the Cherokee nation capital, Tahlequah. She obtained a bachelor’s degree in mathematics from the Northeastern State Teacher’s college there before going to Colorado State Teacher’s college for her master’s degree. When the U.S. joined WWII, she moved to California to work as a mathematician at Lockheed. While there had her work in their Advanced Development Program, Ross was known for her work on interplanetary space travel, design concepts, earth-orbiting flights, and the earliest studies of satellites. Her work was critical to the Agena rocket project and she coauthored the top secret NASA Planetary Handbook about space travel to Mars and Venus. Though we’re not sure what’s in all those classified papers she’s written, one thing is certain: she pioneered research that jumpstarted the space race and changed history.
Entomologists Like Me
Eva Crane – To celebrate World Bee Day, the STEM Center is featuring a prominent melittologist (a scientist who studies bees) for this week’s STEM Like Me. Eva Crane obtained a Ph.D. in 1941 in nuclear physics; however, she became interested in bees after her wedding in 1942 when she received a beehive as a wedding present. She received this wedding gift to help her supplement sugars in her cooking during the wartime sugar rations. Over the next 50 years, Crane wrote over 180 papers, articles, and books. Crane contributed to the writing and editing, Honey: A Comprehensive Survey, a book that was considered and continues to be one of the most significant reviews on the subject. She also has two books that are seminal works in the beekeeping world (Bees and Beekeeping: Science, Practice and World Resources and The World History of Beekeeping and Honey Hunting).
In 1949, The Bee Research Organization (BRA) was formed and was hosted out of Crane’s house: she served as the director. In 1976, the BRA became the IBRA by adding International to the title. IRBA is recognized around the world as the primary source and provider of information on bees. After serving as director for 35 years, Eva Crane retired from this role but stayed on as a scientific consultant. She retired so that she would be able to focus on her own works, and her two seminal works were published after her retirement.
Environmental Scientists Like Me
Inez Fung – Inez Fung, a climatologist at the University of California, Berkeley, was born and raised in Hong Kong. After graduating from King’s College, she moved to the United States and earned her bachelor of science in applied mathematics from MIT. She continued her education at MIT, studying how spiral rainbands in a hurricane are organized, and she became the second woman to graduate from MIT with a doctoral degree in Meteorology.
She then joined the National Academy of Sciences, where she worked as a research associate and afterwards she worked at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory at Columbia University. In 1986, the Observatory promoted her to an adjunct associate research scientist, and she was hired as a physical scientist for the NASA Goddard Center, where she served as a member of the National Academy of Sciences Climate Research Committee. She now works at the University of California, Berkeley in both the Department of Earth and Planetary Science and the Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management. She is also the co-director of the Berkeley Institute of the Environment. She has done extensive work on climate modeling, biogeochemical cycles, and climate change and has been a contributing author in the International Panel on Climate Change’s 3rd and 4th Assessment reports.
Fung’s main research focus addresses changing patterns of precipitation through the analysis of East and South Asian monsoons. Her research has also led her to study how trees access water in California’s dry summers and cool the atmosphere. By studying these changes, Fung has highlighted what influences the location, timing and intensity of precipitation, improving our projections of how that could change in the future. “It’s very important for us living on Earth enjoying the biosphere, enjoying the outdoors, to know how things are changing and to understand why things are changing,” says Fung. She is also the founding director of the Berkeley Atmospheric Sciences Center. “I think nature is always smarter than me,” says Fung. “When I think I’ve got it, there’s another puzzle that nature presents to me.”
Geologists Like Me
Florence Bascom – Florence Bascom was the first woman in the United States to receive a PhD from John Hopkins University, and only the second woman to receive a degree in geology. Her work has inspired many other female geologists. In a time when few women pursued higher education, Bascom’s family actively supported her decisions and encouraged her to follow her hopes to have a career in science.
Bascom’s work focused on the identification of acidic volcanoes and the cycles of erosion as a geological surveyor. She argued that the acidity of volcanoes can change over time, and created prefixes to help identify the acidic changes of the rocks. Bascom also worked as a geological surveyor and authored many reports of geologic folios. One of her findings led to a new definition of how to define a cycle of erosion, as she found evidence that there had been nine previous cycles in Pennsylvania. Before this, scientists believed only three cycles had occurred. During Bascom’s time as a professor, she founded the Department of Geology at Bryn Mawr, and many of her students went on to become Fellows of the Geological Society of America.
Throughout her education, Bascom faced many challenges like not being allowed to enroll in the same classrooms as men. During her schooling at John Hopkins University, she even had to sit behind a screen so she wouldn’t disrupt the men in the class. Bascam was able to overcome these challenges and would go on to have many remarkable achievements in geology. In 1901, she was the first female geologist to present a paper to the Geological Survey of Washington. She was the first woman elected to the Council of the Geological Society of America, as well as the first female officer and vice-president of the Geological Society of America. To this day, she serves as an inspiration for women to persist in STEM.
Inge Lehmann – Inge Lehmann was a Danish seismologist and geophysicist. She grew up in Copenhagen, where she attended a pedagogically progressive high school and later want on to the University of Copenhagen and the University of Cambridge to study mathematics. Lehmann received a candidatus magisterii, a master of the arts degree, in physical science and mathematics. She later returned to Denmark to work at Copenhagen University where she served as an assistant to the professor of actuarial science, J.F. Steffensen, and then began working with the geodesist Niels Norlund. While working as Norlund’s assistant, she was assigned to set up observatories of seismology in Denmark and Greenland. This work led to her receiving another degree equivalent to an MA, in geodesy. She then accepted a position as state geodesist and went to work under Norlund again at the Geodetical Institute of Denmark as head of the department of seismology. In 1936, Lehmann published a paper where she interpret P waves as reflections from an inner core: the first in the field to propose this concept. Previously, it had been thought that the earth had one molten core, and Lehmann’s findings helped show that there is a solid inner core and molten outer core. This results in P waves and seismic shifts.
Lehmann stayed at the Geodetical Institute of Denmark until 1953, when she retired and moved to the US to collaborate with Maurice Ewing and Frank Press. While working with them and investigating Earth’s crust and upper mantle, she discovered another seismic discontinuity. This discontinuity lies between 190 and 250 km and was named the Lehmann discontinuity. She wrote her last research article at age 99, and was the longest-lived woman scientist having lived past 104 years old. Throughout her life, and afterwards, she received many awards for her scientific achievements. She was also awarded honorary doctorates from Columbia University and the University of Copenhagen.
Marie Tharp – Marie Tharp was an American geologist and oceanographic cartographer. One of her major scientific accomplishments was the creation of the first scientific map of the Atlantic Ocean sea-floor, which Tharp created in collaboration with Bruce Heezen. When Tharp’s work showed a continuous rift valley along the Mid-Atlantic ridge, and she proposed this was due to plate tectonics, Heezen ridiculed her theory because she was a female. After confirming the rift with Howard Foster, who studied undersea earthquakes, Heezen and other earth scientists began to accept the theories of plate tectonics and continental drive.
Tharp grew up as the daughter of a map-maker for the United States Department of Agriculture, but originally aspired to be a teacher like her mother. Tharp graduated from Ohio University with bachelor’s degrees in English and Music with four minors. With the start of WWII, Tharp was recruited into a master’s program in petroleum geology at the University of Michigan given some of her coursework in geology as an undergraduate. After obtaining her master’s degree, Tharp went back to school and obtained a bachelor of science in mathematics. She then moved to New York and began working at the Lamont Geological Laboratory at Columbia University, where she met Bruce Heezen. This is when she began her research mapping the ocean floor.
In 1997, Tharp received double honors from the Library of Congress for being one of the four greatest cartographers of the 20th century. The first Lamont-Dohert Heritage Award was awarded to Tharp in 2001 for her pioneering work in oceanography. In this latter part of her career, Tharp was awarded numerous other awards in recognition of her research and scholarly work.
Mathematicians Like Me
Grace Hopper – Grace Hopper was an American mathematician and United States Navy rear admiral. She was a pioneer of computer programming and she popularized the idea of machine-independent programming languages.
Hopper earned a Ph.D. in mathematics from Yale University and then became a professor at Vassar College. At the age of 34, she attempted to enlist in the Navy during WWII but was rejected because of her age, her weight to height ratio being too low, and that her profession was too valuable to the war effort. After her denial, she joined the United States Navy reserve where she was assigned to the Bureau of Ships Computation Project at Harvard and served on the Mark I computer programming staff. She went on to help develop COBOL and developed the implementation of standards for testing computer systems.
Hopper retired from the Naval Reserve at the age of 60, in 1966. The Navy recalled her to active duty multiple times over the next 20 years, leading her to be promoted from a commander, to a captain to a rear admiral by the time she retired for good in 1986. She then went on to work for Digital Equipment Corporation where she worked until her death in 1992. She was interred with full military honors in Arlington National Cemetery.
Katherine Johnson – Katherine Johnson is an African-American mathematician who worked for NASA and her calculations of orbital mechanics were critical to the success of the first and subsequent U.S. manned spaceflights. She spent 35 years at NASA, where she helped the space agency pioneer the use of computers to perform the tasks. In 2015, Johnson was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Barack Obama. She was also portrayed in the movie “Hidden Figures” by Taraji P. Henson, which depicts the roles of African-American women at NASA during the Space Race.
Johnson decided to be a research mathematician, although the first jobs she found were in teaching. When she found out that NACA, the predecessor of NASA, was hiring mathematicians, she applied and was hired as a “computer” in the West Area Computers section before being moved to the Guidance and Navigation Department. Through her career with NASA, Johnson worked directly with digital computers, and helped calculate the trajectory for the 1969 Apollo 11 flight to the moon. She also worked on the Apollo 13 moon mission and helped create a one-star observation system that allowed astronauts to determine their location with accuracy. Johnson also worked on the Space Shuttle program, the Earth Resources Satellite, and on a plan for a mission to Mars.Maryam Mirzakhani – Maryam Mirzakhani was a mathematician at Stanford University when she passed away in 2017 from breast cancer. Originally from Iran, Mirzakhani was a gold medal winner in the Iranian National Olympiad for mathematics for two years in a row. This allowed her to enter college without completing the national entrance exams. Mirzakhani went on to obtain a Bachelor of Science in mathematics. During this time she was also recognized by the American Mathematical Society for her contribution to a simple proof for a theorem of Schur.
She then went to Harvard University for her PhD. After Harvard, Mirzakhani was a research fellow of the Clay Mathematics Institute, a professor at Princeton University, and a professor at Stanford University. Throughout her life she made many contributions to the field of mathematics. Her work mainly focused on moduli spaces, geodesics, and Riemann surfaces.In 2014 Mirzakhani was awarded the Fields Medal for her work on Riemann surfaces and their moduli spaces. Near the end of her life, Mirzakhani won many other awards and was elected to various academies.
Physicist Like Me
Shadia Rifa’i Habbal – Shadia Rifa’i Habbal is a professor of solar physics at the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy. She was raised in Homs, Syria and earned a bachelor’s degree in physics and math from the University of Damascus. She continued her education and obtained a master’s and a doctorate degree in physics from the University of Cincinnati. From 1978, Habbal formed a research group in solar-terrestrial physics at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. In 2005, she began working at the Hawaii Institute for Astronomy. Through her career she has focused on studying solar wind, solar magnetic field, and eclipse polarimetric observations. Habbal has lead ten expeditions to view and study solar eclipses around the world. She has also worked with NASA on multiple occasions observing the solar corona during eclipses and helped establish the NASA Parker Solar Probe, which launched in 2018. The mission of the probe is to help determine why the sun’s atmosphere is even hotter than its internal core.